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Chandrayaan-3 a milestone


Chandrayaan-1 was the first lunar mission launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was a historic mission for India and marked a significant milestone in the country's space exploration program. Chandrayaan-1's main objective was to explore the Moon and conduct scientific experiments to study its surface and mineral composition.

The Chandrayaan-1 mission was launched on October 22, 2008, using India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C11). It carried a suite of scientific instruments, including remote sensing cameras and spectrometers, to study the lunar surface in detail.

One of the most notable achievements of Chandrayaan-1 was the discovery of water molecules on the Moon's surface, particularly in the permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This discovery provided strong evidence of the presence of water ice on the Moon, which has significant implications for future lunar exploration and potential human missions.

The mission also created detailed high-resolution maps of the lunar surface, helping scientists better understand the Moon's geology and its evolutionary history.

Chandrayaan-1 operated successfully until August 2009 when it lost communication with ground control. Despite the communication loss, the mission's data and findings continue to be of great value to the scientific community and have contributed significantly to our knowledge of the Moon.

Chandrayaan-1's success paved the way for future Indian lunar and space exploration missions, including Chandrayaan-2, which aimed to build upon the achievements of its predecessor.


Chandrayaan-2 was the second lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was a significant and complex mission that aimed to explore the Moon's south polar region, a location that had not been extensively studied before.

Chandrayaan-2 was launched on July 22, 2019, using India's powerful GSLV Mk III-M1 rocket. The mission consisted of three components:

  1. Orbiter: The orbiter was designed to orbit the Moon and conduct remote sensing observations to study the lunar surface, map the terrain, and analyze the composition of the Moon's surface.

  2. Vikram Lander: The Vikram lander was meant to make a soft landing on the lunar surface and deploy a rover to explore the Moon's surface. The rover was named Pragyan.

  3. Pragyan Rover: The rover, Pragyan, was designed to move on the lunar surface and conduct scientific experiments, providing valuable data to better understand the Moon.

While the orbiter successfully entered lunar orbit, the lander encountered some challenges during its descent to the lunar surface. Unfortunately, the lander lost communication with mission control, resulting in a partial failure of the landing attempt.